Featured Reviews, VOLUME 3

Featured: IMAGINATION IN PLACE – Wendell Berry. [Vol. 3, #6]

Humility, Reverence, Propriety of Scale,
and Good Workmanship

A Review of
Imagination in Place:
by Wendell Berry.

Reviewed by Brent Aldrich.

Imagination in Place.
Wendell Berry.

Hardback: Counterpoint, 2010.
Buy now:  [ Amazon ]

Imagination in Place - Wendell BerryIn the last chapter of The Essential Agrarian Reader, Wendell Berry contrasts two types of minds, first the rational mind, “hell-bent on quantification,” failing to include “things that cannot be quantified – the health of watersheds, the integrity of ecosystems, the wholeness of human hearts.” As a corrective is the “affective or sympathetic mind,” which works in a particular context with a sort of creative sympathy towards places and communities. Furthermore, working in a context makes impossible the reductionism and abstraction of the rational mind, instead acknowledging that our “pictures of realities…are constantly subject to correction – by new facts, of course, but also by experience, by intuition, and by faith. We may say, then, that our sciences and arts owe a certain courtesy to Reality, and that this courtesy can be enacted only by humility, reverence, propriety of scale, and good workmanship.”

Berry’s newest book of essays, Imagination in Place, could be characterized as expanding the description of the ‘sympathetic mind’ as Berry has experienced it as a farmer and a writer, and even more as he has come to recognize and depend on that mind in the work and friendship of other writers. One mark of all these writers, Berry included, is that they are ‘placed,’ and not in the easy sentimentalization of ‘Place’ that seems to be floating around recently; rather, “to submit to the unending effort to change one’s mind and ways to fit one’s farm. This is a hard education, which lasts all one’s life, never to be completed” (10). This ongoing work, in which “nature [is] the inevitable mirror and measure of art” (11) is the work of imagination, as Berry will continue to make clear.

It is important that imagination – as it is fleshed out in Imagination in Place – becomes just that, a material thing, embodied in art and work in ways by which all things are made new; imagination moves us beyond our selves to see people and places, reality, as they really are. Imagination could perhaps help us to see that the economy of the Kingdom of God is at hand, as Berry has suggested before. This economy may be the greatest imaginative act of all, because it asks that we “include everything.” In addition, though, imagination is particularizing and local, “placing the world and its creatures within a context of sanctity in which their worth in absolute and incalculable” (32). For instance:

“My neighbors don’t look like Southerners or Kentuckians to me. The better I know them, the more they look like themselves. The better I know my place, the less it looks like other places and the more it looks like itself. It is imagination, and only imagination, that can give standing to these distinctions.

If imagination is to have a real worth to us, it needs to have a practical, an economic, effect. It needs to establish us in our places with a practical respect for what is there besides ourselves. I think the highest earthly result of imagination is probably local adaptation” (33-4).

This imaginative act of adaptation and empathy is seen in many writers about whom Berry writes stories, criticism, and a couple eulogies – Wallace Stegner, Hayden Carruth, Jane Kenyon, Shakespeare, and others demonstrate, and in some sense explain, imagination’s clarifying and transformative power. Although Berry writes in this volume primarily about writers, it should be understood that when describing ‘art,’ he just as often means ‘work,’ or the ways by which humans “imagine the experience, to see it clear and whole in the mind’s eye” (3-4); Berry describes in the first chapter the difficulty, and the problem, of separating out the place where he works from the work itself as a farmer and as a writer, and the circle of friends and influences in that work. The wonderful work of imagination – and the way it gets embodied in art and in places – is how all of the influences, contexts, and experiences are bound together in a cohesive whole.

This line of thought again clarifies the distinction between the rational mind and the sympathetic mind. The rational mind (described also in terms of fundamentalism in “God, Science, and Imagination” and in art as ‘realism’) “assumes the posture of absolute certainty and unquestionability” (185). The sympathetic imagination, it seems to me, is described most beautifully in “A Master Language”:

“There is, of course, a difference between realism and what [John Millington] Synge called ‘reality.’ Realism is the most fraudulent of literary illusions because it promotes in its theory the illusion that it is not an illusion. ‘Reality’ in art is life made immediate to the imagination. Like Synge’s plays, Mr. [James] Still’s stories feed on observation and hearing, but they give us, not what has been seen and heard, but what has been imagined. The story set before us moves us because it is imaginable as lived life; its language is imaginable as spoken speech. We do not read as observers of putatively ‘real’ events that have been observed, but rather as participants in events that have been so fully imagined that we too cannot help but imagine them” (79-80).

Berry suggests throughout Imagination in Place that, quoting from King Lear, “thy life’s a miracle.” Given that miracle, the appropriate response is “humility, reverence, propriety of scale, and good workmanship,” and it is by imagination – and by faith – that we come to see the gift for what it is. Berry’s stability in his place and to his work, described as it is for may of us by his writing, is certainly encouragement at this writing, even as he graciously acknowledges many others who are doing the good work of embodying imagination.

C. Christopher Smith is the founding editor of The Englewood Review of Books. He is also author of a number of books, including most recently How the Body of Christ Talks: Recovering the Practice of Conversation in the Church (Brazos Press, 2019). Connect with him online at: C-Christopher-Smith.com

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  1. Thank you for the review. I think I’ll wait a bit for the price to drop before I purchase one though 😉

  2. I’ve been trying to bite my tongue since I so respect you guys, glad you are one of the very best providers of good information about good books out there. As colleagues and friends, I resonate with your views and praise God for your radical fidelity.

    Except that incongruous amazon banner thingie moving across the bottom, which doesn’t fit well (or so it seems to me) with your basic values of localism and radical rejection of the idols of efficiency and facelessness. Yow.

    And now, this. Naming Jonthan’s book on the stability of place, and Wendell Berry on being committed to place as great books, with a big wonkin’ amazon ad to by them from that placer of No Where. All I can do is shake my head and say we live in very funny times. I am sure this is not lost on you, and I hope I am not hurtful by saying how dumb I think it is.

    Anyway, taking that little piece of the mark of the beast or not, carry on, sin boldly, and continue to remind us of the good stuff.


    Hearts & Minds

  3. Hi Byron —

    Thanks for your feedback…

    I wasn’t clear whether the issue was partnering with Amazon at all or that specific ad…

    I don’t have a problem partnering with Amazon. Granted it’s not ideal, and hopefully it’s only a temporary solution. Frankly, I don’t have the luxury of being a purist; we’re lucky if we break even on our hodge-podge of book businesses (new/used book sales, Doulos Christou Press, the ERB), and wouldn’t break even if I didn’t bill about a third of my time to managing some homeowner repair grants for the more traditional side of the church-based community development corp. of which we are part. Selling used books on amazon has been a staple of our book business (although less so since book sales plummeted in roughly 2007), and has allowed us to have some common work together, and fund some of our other book-based activities that consistently lose money (publishing, the ERB) that are very much an expression of who our church is as an manifestation of the Body of Christ in this particular location. Yes, we recognize the many tensions of partnering with a faceless, global, corporate entity like amazon, and praise God that we are being guided in a direction that is less reliant on the amazon-based economic activity than we were five years ago!

    Personally, I have more interest in my commitment to discerning as church community what faithfulness to God’s redemptive mission looks like in this place and imagining together how God is calling us to nurture the common good in this place(catalyzing both local culture and local economy) than to some sort of purism that categorically avoids cooperating with global corporations.

    Now… on the other hand if your primary repulsion was that specific ad, I’m a little more sympathetic. It has only been on the site for a couple of months (and at the page bottom at that)
    on an experimental basis in a desperate effort to drum up minimal funding for the work that goes in the Review. It’s selection of books isn’t particularly representative of who we are, and I have been thinking about changing for awhile now, but have been on the road too much and haven’t had the time to ponder site adaptations… Your input might be the final straw….

    Speaking of which, would you consider some sort of referral program, where we would get a small percentage if people directed from our site bought maybe even one specific book from H&M? I’d be glad to have a banner created (say for Jonathan’s book) that invited people to order it from you, and replace the offending amazon banner with that…

    Thanks for speaking up…

    Chris Smith

  4. Chris,

    It is late, tonight, but I wanted to write to say, for anybody reading along, that I indeed understand your situation, realize that you understand these concerns, and—as I hoped to communicate in my note—that you still have our respect and admiration. It’s hard to keep up with all you do at Englewood, and it is almost always top notch. Which makes the partnership that much more awkward.

    This isn’t the place for a large critique of their practices and our sense that partnership with them isn’t particularly healthy, but do say we salute you nonetheless. I know you think about this stuff, call us (all) to a deeper view of church and Kingdom, and I’m grateful.

    Sure, we could talk about referral stuff. Not as spiffy as the big A, but we’d be honored.

    We don’t turn the computer on on Sunday, and I’m out teaching all next week, away. Our staff is on for order-taking and the work goes on, but conversation will have to wait a bit. I am eager, though…

    Thanks for your gracious and thoughtful reply. I was hoping I hadn’t be unfair or unkind.

    Best wishes,


  5. If I can get this article for free I would love too but not so I just wait for other people’s comment if the writing is fine before I will purchase it. n

  6. This work of an art really touches my innate feelings. It soothed everything deep inside me.

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