“Following Jesus to the Cross”
A Review of
Two Recent Books
on Christian Martyrdom.
By Chris Smith.
Two recent books, The Purple Crown by Tripp York and To Share in the Body by Craig Hovey explore the question of what it means to be a martyr church in the present age. Both authors work from the assumption that martyrdom is foreign to the Church in the
In To Share in the Body, Hovey works through the text of Mark, identifying six themes and images that are relevant to martyrdom. The first of these images is baptism, the purpose of which, in Hovey’s words, is “to enact and declare membership with a martyr church” (23). In baptism, we identify with the death and resurrection of Jesus (Romans 6). Hovey keenly notes that just as the work of baptism is a divine one, so also the work of martyrdom is not primarily that of human will or action (33). Hovey pointedly concludes this chapter: “The church’s failure to be a martyr-church is supremely seen in those cultures that continue to baptize the young for sentimentality’s sake. For many, baptism involves neither incorporation into the life of the community of faith nor incorporation into the death and resurrection of Christ. It is not a drowning in the surging waters, a participation in the suffering of Christ, a commitment to undergo the discipline of the church relative to its new life and mission made possible by Christ’s resurrection” (40).
The second image that Hovey works from is Jesus’s call to discipleship, which is marked by “carrying crosses.” Hovey notes that the tendency in the Christianity of the present to misinterpret this passage from Mark 8 by putting the emphasis on “your” instead of on “cross.” Furthermore, he notes that “following Jesus” is its own end and not the means to some other end. In what will be a theme developed over the course of the book, Hovey notes that “the church bears its cross when it does not ask what purpose the cross serves” (47).
In the third chapter, Hovey focuses on the theme of Christ’s glory in the Markan gospel. It is in this chapter that he interprets Peter’s confession of the Messiah in Mark 8:27-30 in a striking way. On the surface of things, Peter correctly names Jesus as the Christ, however he quickly goes on to demonstrate his unwillingness to follow in the suffering of Christ. Hovey observes that this unwillingness to follow in the suffering of Christ renders Peter’s confession a false one. The implication of Hovey’s interpretation of this passage is that our confessions of Jesus as Lord and Christ ring hollow today when we prefer our own comfort to following in the suffering of Christ, which is a common temptation in our Western consumer culture in which comfort is of the utmost value. Hovey proceeds to contrasts Peter’s false confession with that of the true confessions made at Jesus’s baptism, transfiguration, and by the Roman centurion at his crucifixion.
The remaining three images that Hovey uses to explore the meaning of martyrdom in Mark are the disciples’ tendency to flee the cross, their watching the crucifixion from a distance and their not seeing Christ as “the risen one.” In the final chapter of To Share in the Body, Craig Hovey explores the meaning of martyrdom for today’s church in light of the theology of martyrdom that he has developed from his work in the text of Mark’s Gospel. As highlighted in the above summary of the second chapter, Hovey in his conclusion emphasizes the “noninstrumentality” of martyrdom – i.e., that a martyr’s death is not a means to another end. Thus, Hovey says “For the New Testament, martyrs do not die because they fight for what is right but precisely because they refuse to fight for what is true” (148). The only instrumentality of martyrdom, Hovey explains, is that of promise or gift. Hovey turns to the book of Revelation to drive home his point that only God can use the martyr witness of the world to “bring about the repentance of the nations” (150).
In contrast, the story that Tripp York weaves from the text of Church history in The Purple Crown is that there is a sort of political instrumentality in martyrdom. Somewhat ironically, he also points to the gift-nature of martyrdom, but it is a gift not only to the Church, but also to all of God’s creation.
Before going any further, it might be helpful for us to examine a little more closely the case that
In the end, these are both excellent books that share much common ground in their interpretation of martyrdom’s meaning. Hovey is an excellent writer, whose crisp prose pulls no punches. However, his insistence on the noninstrumentality of martyrdom, although well-intentioned and rooted in sound theology, does not fit the historical record of how martyrdom has been recognized and honored by the Church. On the other hand,